Tag Archives: sudo chmod

How to add 2nd Hard drive to Ubuntu

To add/mount the second hard drive into Ubuntu, open up the terminal window and type:

sudo fdisk -l

Where sdb is our newly added Secondary Harddisk!

To create the partition on the second Hard drive, use the following command and follow the “on screen” instructions:

sudo fdisk /dev/sdb

Use the partprobe command to update the kernel with the changes:

sudo partprobe /dev/sdb

Where /dev/sdb is my device name, you can use your’s!

Now we need to format our newly created partition using the following command:

sudo mkfs /dev/sdb1 -t ext4

Verify the newly created partition:

sudo fdisk -l

Next you need to create a directory for a mount point:

cd /mnt/
sudo mkdir 2ndHDD 
sudo chmod 0777 2ndHDD
ls -l

Next, mount the newly created sdb1 parition into 2ndHDD directory:

sudo mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/2ndHDD -t ext4

Updated: Run this command once more:

sudo chmod 0777 2ndHDD

Now, we make a test that we can write a file on to the new drive:

touch /mnt/2ndHDD/test.txt
ls /mnt/2ndHDD/* 

Next time, when we will reboot the computer, it will be gone. If we want to mount new hard drive permanently then we need to edit the fstab file:

sudo nano /etc/fstab

Add this line at the end of the fstab file(you can adjust it according to your requirement):

/dev/sdb1 /mnt/2ndHDD ext4 defaults 0 0

Use this command or else reboot your computer:

sudo mount –a

Hope this will help you!

Please Remember me in your prayers!

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Mercurial Server on Ubuntu 12.04 LTS with Web Access

First we shall verify the version of the Ubuntu server that is running on our machine!

lsb_release -a

Install the Apache if you haven’t it already on your server!

sudo apt-get install apache2

Test the apache directly from the shell by doing a wget to the localhost. You will see the 200 OK response code.

Now install the Mercurial using the following command:

sudo apt-get install mercurial

Check the version of installed mercurial server:

hg --version

Let’s configure the master hgrc configuration file in order to remove the SSL restriction, allow to push the repository through web and trust the apache user (www-data).

sudo nano /etc/mercurial/hgrc

Add these lines to the hgrc file:

[web]
allow_push = *
push_ssl = false
allow_archive = gz, zip, bz2
[trusted]
users = www-data

Now configure the directory where Mercurial will keep all its repositories and serve them through Apache!

cd /
sudo mkdir mercurial
sudo mkdir mercurial/repositories
sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /mercurial

Let’s configure the hgweb.config!

cd /mercurial
sudo nano hgweb.config

Enter the following lines:

[web]
style = gitweb
[collections]
/mercurial/repositories = /mercurial/repositories

Let’s configure the hgweb.cgi script in order to serve the repositories via Apache:

sudo cp /usr/share/doc/mercurial/examples/hgweb.cgi /mercurial
cd /mercurial
sudo chmod a+x hgweb.cgi

Open hgweb.cgi with nano:

sudo nano hgweb.cgi

Find the line that reads config=”…..” and replace with the following line:

Now we shall configure the Apache so it runs the hgweb.cgi when the /mercurial virtual directory is requested.

cd /etc/apache2
sudo mkdir mercurial
cd mercurial
sudo nano mercurial.conf

Type the following in the mercurial.conf file:

Move to the apache sites directory and edit the default file:

cd /etc/apache2/sites-available
sudo nano default

Enter the command in order to link the mercurial.conf file to Apache:

Include /etc/apache2/mercurial/mercurial.conf

Restart the apache server:

sudo apache2ctl restart

Now create a first repository as test, inside the /mercurial/repositories:

cd /mercurial/repositories
sudo mkdir first_repo
cd first_repo
sudo hg init

Change the owner of the repository to the Apache user:

sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /mercurial

To configure the security, we have to tell the Apache that allow only those users who are registered in the password file.

cd /mercurial
sudo htpasswd -mc hgusers arbab 
sudo chown www-data:www-data hgusers

Note: repeat command for more users without adding c.

Time to Test, Launch your browser pointing to http://servername/mercurial:

In order to add the “Description” and “Contact” detail, do the following steps:

cd /mercurial/repositories/first_repo/
cd .hg
sudo nano hgrc

Add these lines to hgrc:

[web]
contact = Arbab Nazar
description = First Mercurial Repository!

Refresh your browser, now you will see the contact and the descriptio 🙂

To solve the push permission denied error:

cd /mercurial/repositories
cd first_repo
sudo chmod -R 777 .hg

Again do it!!!

sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /mercurial

Congrats! now we have a working Mercurial server on Ubuntu 12.04 :-)

Hope this will help you!

Please Remember me in your prayers!

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